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1 Jun 30, 2016
GIS AND REMOTE SENSING BASED FOREST CHANGE DETECTION FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT IN BENCH MAJI ZONE, ETHIOPIA

Forest cover change analysis was calculated and estimated using Landsat imageries of the area. Nowadays, forest cover change is the major and the most widespread form of environmental problems in southwestern parts of Ethiopia. Population pressure due to re-settlement, overgrazing, deforestation and uncontrolled exploitations of natural resource for firewood, construction and other household uses often ultimately leads to severe forest cover changes. Therefore, the overall objective of this paper is to assess the extents of forest cover changes for sustainable forest management. This study had integrated Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global position System (GPS) technologies to assess and map forest cover changes from 1986 to 2001. The data were collected and analyzed from Landsat satellite imageries and ground control point verifications using GPS technologies. The result of the study discourses that, forest cover is drastically decreasing through time especially in the resettlement areas of northwestern tip, central and northeastern parts of catchment. Quantitatively, forest cover was diminished from19.55% in 1986 to 11.8% by 2001....

Authors: Abebe Mengaw Wubie.

2 Jun 30, 2016
LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES AT UPPER NAGWAN WATERSHED USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING

Hydrological process in a mixed land use watershed are significantly influenced by land use (LU) and land cover(LC) in order to quantity the effect of LU/LC, topography, morphology, runoff and sediment yield of a small multivegetated watershed in a sub-humid sub tropical region in Nagwan watershed, Hazaribagh, India. The sub-watershed with relatively high forest cover showed significantly less runoff and sediment yield, where as a sub-watershed with more area under cultivation produced higher runoff and higher sediment yield. In the watershed comprising areas under cultivation, waste follow and eroded land, forest and bushes. Remote sensing has emerged as a powerful tool for cost effective data acquisition in a short time at periodic intervals (temporal), different wave length lands (speotral) and covering large area (spatial). The availability computing facilities makes it possible to overcome many difficulties and limitations and to develop distributed continuous models, based on available regional information....

Authors: Kaushlendra kumar, R.K.Isaac, Md Jafri Ahsan.

3 Jun 30, 2016
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF SOILS WITH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATTER AT J-BAND MICROWAVE FREQUENCY

The real (e') and imaginary (e") parts of the complex dielectric constant (e*) of four soils with increasing percentage of humus and calcium carbonate seperatly are measured. The J-band microwave bench tunned to 7.0 GHz is used for measurements. The two point method is used for these measurements. The value of e’ and e’’ increases with increase in organic as well as with inorganic matter of soils. These values are used to estimate relaxation time. The result shows the variation in dielectric properties with addition of humus and calcium carbonate for same soils. These results are useful for researchers working in field of microwave remote sensing and agriculture....

Authors: Harish C. Chaudhari.

4 Jun 30, 2016
IDENTIFICATION OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE SITES FOR NEYYAR RIVER BASIN

Groundwater security is recognized as one of the major challenges for India’s economic and social development. According to the report from the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), India’s groundwater tables are plunging at an alarming rate with reserves in some states dwindling to critical levels. Unregulated use of groundwater in southern peninsular India has also led to over extraction, resulting in threshold to be ‘critical’. Over 30 million groundwater struc-tures in play, India is hurtling towards a crisis of over-extraction which would result in 60% of all aquifers in a critical condition within 20 years. Various groundwater re-newable methods must be adopted to overcome the issue. Artificial recharge is the process by which the groundwater is augmented at a rate much higher than those under natural condition of replenishment which could provide a solution. The present study is carried out for Neyyar river basin, Thir-uvananthapuram district, Kerala. The methodology adopted for the investigation of artificial groundwater recharge sites is based on the integrated Remote Sensing and GIS. Themat-ic maps such as geology map, soil map, geomorphology map, Landuse/Landcover map, slope map, drainage density map, lineament density map, relative relief map and infiltra-tion number map are prepared and weighted overlay analysis is performed to determine the sites suitable for artificial re-charge....

Authors: Suresh D , Colins Johnny .J , Jayaprasad B K.

5 Jun 30, 2016
ANALYSIS ON SPATIAL VARIATION OF RAINFALL AND GROUNDWATER FLUCTUATION IN KODAYAR SUB BASIN,TAMILNADU, INDIA

The study covers the groundwater level variability analysis and its relationship with rainfall for the Kodayar sub-basin of Kanyakumari district (Tamil Nadu) through Geographical Information System (GIS) technique. The rainfall data from the study area for a period of ten years were analyzed annually and categorized based on the seasons: Post monsoon (Jan. &Feb.), Pre monsoon (Mar. to May), Southwest monsoon (Jun. to Sep.) and Northeast monsoon (Oct. to Dec.). By conventional method, the annual rainfall is found to be 1446mm, of which the post monsoon, pre monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon are 26.6 mm (2.2%), 239mm (25.5%), 364 mm (38.8%) and 307mm (33.5%) respectively. These results were taken into GIS platform and the spatial distribution maps prepared. From these spatial distribution maps for the seasons, annual average rainfall was prepared. The maximum rainfall was recorded at Thukkalai in October, having the monthly and annual average of 283 mm and 1394mm respectively. Similarly the minimum rainfall was at Bhoothapandi in January with the average value of 2mm. The monthly rainfall curve has its peak during October and nadir during January. SW monsoon and NE monsoon almost play an equal role in their rainfall contributions, whereas the post monsoon rainfall occurrence is negligible in this region....

Authors: Danee Joycee C.S, Helen Santhi.M.

6 Jun 30, 2016
SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MULBERRY PLANTATION SITES: A CASE STUDY OF DEHRADUN DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND STATE

Site suitability analysis has been done to identify and map the potential areas for mulberry cultivation on 1:50000 scale in Dehradun district in Uttarakhand state. Cultivable wasteland was taken as the potential areas for suitability analysis. Different thematic layers viz., cultivable wasteland, forest cover map, soils (depth, drainage, texture), slope, elevation, ground water prospects, have been generated and incorporated with climatic parameters (Temperature, rainfall and humidity) to derive different site suitability classes using Resourcesat 1 LISS III satellite data for mulberry plantation in Dehradun district. The study has identified suitable areas for mulberry plantation in Dehradun district. Identified suitable areas can be taken for mulberry plantation by the sericulture department to meet the increasing demand of silk production using present wastelands....

Authors: Saurabh Purohit, Divya Uniyal, Deepika Kandwal, M.M. Kimothi, Durgesh Pant.

7 Jun 30, 2016
LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION USING NEURAL NETWORK

In this paper, new multilayer perceptron’s feed forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) technique using BFGS quasi newton , Levenberg -Marquardt (LM), Gradient descent back propagation with adaptive learning rate(GDA) Algorithms are being proposed with the project objective to develop a lossless image compression technique using NN and to design and implement image compression using Neural network to achieve maximum peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), and low mean square error (MSE) and compression levels. This paper presents a NN based technique that may be applied to data compression and breaks down large images into smaller blocks (1x64) and eliminates redundant information. Finally, this technique uses a NN training functions like (trainbf, trainlm, traingda) and conversion of block codes to vector codes and vice versa. Results obtained with proposed techniques leads to better compression information. Finally, this technique uses a NN training functions like (trainbf, trainlm, traingda) and conversion of block codes to vector codes and vice versa. Results obtained with proposed techniques leads to better compression ratio at the same time preserving the image quality. The experimental result shows that the BFG quasi newton algorithm is best among the three proposed algorithm which provides better PSNR value and also reduces the MSE value....

Authors: Rohit Srivastava, O.P Singh.

8 Jun 30, 2016
HYPERSPECTRAL DISCRIMINATION OF ROOFING MATERIALS IN RELATION TO HISTORY

This paper presents the results of a research activity aimed at studying urban areas by means of remotely sensed hyperspectral data acquired over the city of Rome. The classification of remotely sensed images allowed us to identify different spectral classes referred to materials used for building roofs and to deduce considerations on how the use of building techniques and materials has evolved in space and time, or the architectural composition of building volume. In particular, the classification shows how roof coverings reflect a well defined epoch and how the building style, consolidated over the centuries, granted the privilege to use local materials until the 19th century. From the 19th century onwards, there is a period when unau-thorized buildings and urbanization were rampant, with an indiscriminate and chaotic use of materials like bituminous surfaces, corrugated iron roofing sheets and so on...

Authors: Lorenza Fiumi, Stefano Tocci, Carlo Meoni.

9 Jun 30, 2016
IMPACTS OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL IN LAND DEGRADATION ASSESSMENT – A CASE STUDY OF MUNNAR

This study addresses the assessment of land degradation using Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in Munnar and its vicinity. Land degradation is slow and continual deterioration process mainly induced by human activities and equally catalysed by few natural parameters also. Until they grew in their full vigor it couldn’t be seen by naked eyes, its tropical identification takes several years while its consequences sometimes remains forever. Hilly regions are much prone to this land degradation and serves as a caricature to witness its global consequence. This study area in recent times welcomes huge increase in population as well as tourists in equal measures which indirectly promote an emerging urbanization; this project also involves working on its population data in order to arrive at a prediction, to unveil the alarming status of this region. Munnar is bejewelled by its beautiful chain of mountains and this region usually receives more rainfall and usually its watershed is generally controlled by its dense trees but because of the recent unhealthy agricultural practices and urbanization the torrent ends up with water erosion which eventually contributed to the number of recent landslides it encountered and recorded. The recent time cultivators are not giving thought on the changes they make to the agricultural practices which lead to the top soil characteristic changes henceforth land degradation assessment here is carried out considering parameters like land use/land cover changes, hydrographical and topographical parameters. The landuse/landcover changes imply that there are various irregularities and most of the changes occur in medium slope area. Through weighted overlay analysis the land degradation assessment result is obtained and multiple analysis were carried out on highly risky areas which could be affected early by soil erosion, landslides and gullies are figured out. Throughout the paper, the exclusion of conservative approach rather an endorsement here and there about the essential and strategical utilization of DEM and Remote sensing which would end up in exponential land degradation management for the coming age....

Authors: Monica Praisy M; Jayaprasad B K; Karuppasamy S.

10 Jun 30, 2016
POTENTIAL EVALUATION OF WATER RESOURCE IN KRISHNA BASIN IN MAHARASHTRA

In this study surface water and ground water resource potential and demand was evaluated at sub catchment level. Hydrologic Modelling was done using HEC-HMS software taking dynamic canopy for evapotranspiration, SCS curve number for surface loss, constant monthly for base flow and storage-discharge for reservoir consideration. Basin model and curve numbers were generated using ArcGIS. Ground water fluctuation study of 10 years water level data along with remote sensing was used to evaluate ground water po-tential. Resource potential maps were generated using ArcGIS. Nonagricultural water demand was figured out us-ing projected population of 2030 to generate nonagricultural demand. For finding agricultural demand three zones delin-eated considering area equipped for irrigation for no/one/two times a year. Annual demand using standard delta for these zones considering different cropping pattern was figured out. Demand maps were prepared using ArcGIS for agricultural and nonagricultural demands. Integrated demand-potential analysis was carried out to figure out defi-cit at sub catchment level and deficit maps were generated. Scenario analysis by upgrading or down grading cropping pattern (i.e. changing current cropping pattern) was also carried out analyze deficit/surplus of sub catchments and consequently basins. Deficit maps for all case scenarios were generated....

Authors: Bhore Sagar M, L.G.Patil.

11 Jun 30, 2016
GIS BASED FUZZY MODELLING APPROACH TO IDENTIFY THE SUITABLE SITES FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER

Water has become a scarce resource all over the world and so special attention must be paid to ground water resource management. Only two main sources of fresh water in the world are available which are surface water and groundwater. The amount of water in these sources is very little and is required for future storing by groundwater recharge which is very important. Groundwater is the main source of water mainly for agriculture and domestic purposes. Artificial Groundwater Recharge (AGR) method is best Availability of non-committed runoff, hydro-geologically favourable area for recharges and site-specific design of recharge structures are the major requirements. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitable areas for AGR structures in upper Bhima River basin in the semi-arid zone of Pune district, Maharashtra, India. In this study, knowledge based weightage values are assigned for each thematic layer and these thematic maps were integrated to fuzzy tool to determine membership values. Membership values were derived respective thematic map’s each class, then fuzzy overlay analysis was carried out. The entire area has been classified as very suitable, suitable, moderate and unsuitable for AGR. Artificial recharge structure, like Check dam, nallabund, gully plugging, percolation ponds etc. are suggested to increase groundwater level. The conventional practice in water harvesting takes into consideration the availability of land, suitability of a particular artificial recharge techniques based on local conditions, and the area benefited. Hence, decisions regarding to the location and type of recharge structure for water conservation can be made only after extensive geological and hydrogeological studies on a local scale....

Authors: Prasenjit Bhowmick , Sivakumar V.

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  • Vol 2, Issue 5 Sept 2012 will be published on 22 Sept 2012 Evening. Kindly wait for little more time. Posted by Admin.