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1 Jun 30, 2016
ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION CANOPY USING GEO-SPATIAL TECHNIQUES OVER MINING AREAS OF PANDABESWAR IN BARDDHAMAN DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

Vegetation cover analysis was calculated and estimated with the use of Landsat imageries of the Pandabeswar min-ing area. At the present time, detection and determination of vegetation cover change is the major and the most wide-spread form of environmental problems in Pandabeswar block OC Coal mines region. Population pressure due to mining growth, deforestation and uncontrolled exploitations of the available natural resource for firewood, construction and other household usages often ultimately leads to severe degradation in the vegetation cover. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to monitor and assess the vegetation covering over the mining area using the remote sensing techniques. In this study an integrated Geo-spatial Information System (GIS) and digital Remote Sensing (RS) approach has been utilized to monitor and assess the vegetation canopy as of 2010. Landsat data of the study area were collected and ana-lyzed using the digital image processing approach and veri-fications were carried out at the ground control points using GPS based technologies. In this study, different parameters i.e. NDVI, PVI, NDWI and SAVI are used for the overlay analysis in GIS Platform to generate the vegetation canopy over the mining area. The result of the study discourses that, vegetation cover is severely decreasing over time especially in and around the open cast coal mining effect....

Authors: Kunal Kanti Maiti , Sonjay Mondal , Debashish Chakravarty , Jatisankar Bandyopadhyay.

2 Jun 30, 2016
WEB BASED GIS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION USING GOOGLE EARTH IMAGERY, OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AND STANDARDS

Internet provide us the technology to access different levels of information. Geospatial information on the internet is an interactive way for providing information as well as distributing. Web-GIS is the technology platform consisting of different web map service and client-server architecture to enhance information. Internet system provide the service of information collecting, storing, retrieving, analysis and visualizing data. Web-GIS platform provides us with the spatial information for decision making. We have focus on this paper regarding mapping of Infrastructure Information and integrating these information to web based GIS Platform. We have taken North Eastern Hill University (NEHU) campus as our case study. The existing and proposed infrastructures of NEHU, Shillong campus map is used for implementation in which infrastructure layers developed to a web based information system. We have used Google Earth Imagery to create layers using Quantum GIS Software, GeoServer as web GIS server, PostgreSQL/PostGIS as Objet Oriented Relational Database management system (ORDBMS) for interpolate spatial information which can be assessed over the internet efficiently globally. The information contains about the NEHU existing and proposed infrastructures are academic blocks, hostels, administrative block, residential areas, commercial areas etc. The web Based system will help in easy visualization and identification of these layers....

Authors: Ganesh Borpatra Gohain, B.S Mipun , K.K Singh.

3 Jun 30, 2016
DEVELOPMENT OF EROSION HOTSPOTS FOR KAAS PLATEAU (ESZ) OF WESTERN GHAT, MAHARASHTRA USING RUSLE AND ARC GIS

Soil erosion is a silent killer converting fertile lands into barren patches thus accelerating the runoff velocities to fur-ther aggravate the erosion cycle. This study attempts to lo-cate the most erodible locations known as erosion hotspots, for the site Kaas Plateau which is an ecologically sensitive zone (ESZ) of Western Ghat, Maharashtra, India. A com-bined tool of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and Geographical Information System (GIS) is employed for this study. According to UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization), the Study area (Kaas Plateau) is a globally important treas-ure of biological diversity as it represents many endemic species of flowering plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and invertebrates. To achieve the goals of this study, the RUSLE factors were calculated using the data collected from past literature of the study area, National Beaureu of Soil Survey, Land use and Planning Department, Nagpur, Environmental Infor-mation System Department, Government of Maharashtra, Digital Elevation Model and satellite image. The rainfall- runoff erosivity factor (R) was derived from mean annual rainfall data. The soil data from past study was used to de-velop the soil erodibility factor (K). A Digital Elevation Model of the study area was used to develop the topographic factor (LS). Cover management factor (C) and Support prac-tice factor (P) were determined from satellite image and con-tour cultivation classes and DEM respectively. The loss of topsoil results in low crop yield, reduction of reservoir ca-pacity, cost increase of water treatment and damaging effects on aquatic life and wildlife habitats. An initial step for taking conservation measures in any land is to identify critical loca-tions where erosion protection measures are needed....

Authors: Prasanna D. Dahe, Prashant G. Borate.

4 Jun 30, 2016
ANALYSIS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN THE STUDY AREA OF KALYALNDURG, BRAHMASAMUDRAM AND SETTURU MANDALS OF ANANTAPUR DISTRICT, AP, INDIA: USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

The present study area consisting three Mandals namely Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu in Anantapur District, A.P. the study area covered in part of two rivers basins which belongs to Krishna, it occupies about 760.66 Sq.km and 69.07 percent of the total study area and Penna, it occupies about 340.58 sq.km and 30.92 percent of the total study area. The average annual water yield in Penna River is nearly 6.31 billion cubic meters. The Bhairavanithippa Irri-gation Project was constructed across the Hagiri or Vedavathi River tributary of Penna. This project envisages supply of irrigation water to 12000 acres of Ayacut under 7 villages in 2 mandals namely Gummagutta and Brahmasamudram mandal. Althouth there are few natural open water bodies, there are 43 tanks in three mandals, and some of these have been abandoned. The majority of the tanks are functioning and have been converted to percolation tanks such as irrigation in command areas relies on ground water instead of surface water release from the tanks. From the study, it is observed that only big villages have tanks and providing water for crops and live stock. And the study area is underlined by different litho logical and physiographical units, different types of drainage patterns are find namely a. Dendritic to sub dendritic pattern, b.Trillis, c.Parallel and d.Radial....

Authors: K. RAGHUVEER NAIDU.

5 Jun 30, 2016
USE OF CI TEST IN CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS

Bayesian network approach is a recent and sophisticated method used in the processing of satellite data. In this paper, this new approach based on Conditional independence (CI) test algorithm has been applied significantly to detect land use changes in two multi date satellite image for a part of Dehradun area. The experimental classification results with an overall accuracy of 90% establish that Bayesian network is a very effective approach for change detection analysis....

Authors: Subhanil Guha.

6 Jun 30, 2016
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIEF AND ITS ANALYSIS USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS: A CASE STUDY

The terrain features and characteristics largely influence the nature of utilization and distribution resources. Today, it has become very important to have elementary knowledge about every land pixel. In this regards, remote sensing techniques and Geographic Information System (GIS) are more popularly used in studies about the earth’s surface features. The advantage of these techniques is also lies in the easy facilitation of data because these techniques provide an easy approach to different data types like multi-spectral, multi-temporal, multi-scale and multi-sensors that helps in successful analysis and prediction of terrain related aspect. Mapping of land features provides a solid platform for evaluation and utilization of resources on a sustained basis as well as other resource's related mapping like soil resource mapping, ground water potential zones, geomorphological mapping and etc....

Authors: Ankana.

7 Jun 30, 2016
AGRICULTURAL DEM GENERATION AND QUANTITATIVE MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SAN DIEGO RIVER, CA, USA

Model generation from SPOT 5 stereoscopic pairs using ArcGIS software. DEM generation has been generated with spatial resolution 3m. After DEM generation San Diego River Basin extracted from DEM and Quantitative Morphometric Analysis has been done. The San Diego River flows from Cuyamaca Mountains range then it reaches to El Capitan Reservoir which is larges reservoir of watershed then the river runs towards west through city San Diego and finally discharges into Pacific Ocean. In this study Morphometric Analysis done on the river which lies between latitude 320 45’28” to 320 53’07”N and longitude -1170 15’09” to -1160 48’39”W i.e. the area selected from EI Capitan Reservoir to the discharging point of the river. The study area found sixth order of stream order which satisfies the (R. E. Horton 1932, 1945) theory. San Diego River Basin found less influenced by structural disturbances and having good structural control in this region. Area is having relative close to coarse drainage texture and the surface is less affected by the agents of denudation. Basin has been observed elongated in shape....

Authors: Vishnu Dayal, Jyoti Sarup.

8 Jun 30, 2016
GIS BASED CRIME HOTSPOT MAPPING AND ANALYSIS USING RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION (RBF) AND INTERPOLATION METHOD

Crime mapping has made rapid advances in recent years with regard to data availability and analytical techniques. One of the major actions that have to be performed by crime investigation department are mitigation of hot spot locations where the number of crimes happening more. Literature shows that Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method was used which does not consider the actual surface values of north south direction and the interpolated surface will reside outside the actual surface area .This method will lead to poor performance for analysing the hot spots. To overcome this problem Radial Basis Function (RBF) is used for considering actual surface values of all the four direc-tions and then the interpolated surfaces will reside inside the bias (i.e within the actual surface area) and Triangulation with Linear interpolation method is to provide a flexible structure and also set of n points are computed in the plane. The experimental study by applying RBF proposes that the accuracy of crime mapping is being increased. In this work Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) tool is used to visualize, navigate, manipulate, and analyse geo-graphic crime datasets....

Authors: S.Sivaranjani , S.Sivakumari.

9 Jun 30, 2016
STUDY OF THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF LAND USE IN THE STEPPE SOUTH OF TLEMCEN PROVINCE FOR THE PERIOD 1987 AND 2010 USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS THECHNIQUE (WESTERN ALGERIA)

Steppe southwest high steppe plains of western Algeria is an open space mainly due to changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic pressures. Land use changes in the arid depending on the mode of operation. The study of the dy-namics of the land has to understand the effect of the main operating modes, the causes of degradation of vegetation and landscape fragmentation. The data, such as Landsat-5 TM two images (Tematic Mapper), were used to analyze the changes between 1987 and 2010 by using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The study of change shows an increase of clearings (55%) and cultivated (49%) and a remarkable reduction of the areas of steppe (31%) in the space-time of 23 years. The medium resolution remote sensing is therefore, in the light of these statistics, a relevant and effective management tool of the steppe area, which, in addition, allows enriching the area in view of an appropriate accommodation plan for the fight against desertification....

Authors: Ayache.A, Ayad.N, Hellal.B, Benhanifia.K, Gacemi.M.

10 Jun 30, 2016
PHYSICAL SCATTERING MECHANISM OF SYNTHESIS APERTURE RADAR (RADAR SAT-2) BY USING POLARIMETRIC ANALYSIS METHOD TO IDENTIFY WATER BODIES OVER EARTH SURFACE

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the active mi-crowave sensor that can capture the Electromagnetic Radia-tion signals of the physical objects. The ability of the mi-crowave sensor to work in day and night is one of the major advantages and very useful in this technique. The capturing of scattered signals from SAR by using polarimetric process is applied to analyze distribution of various object types in the South Parambikulam region of Kerala. The study area contains water bodies, forest, vegetation and soil cover. There are many type of scattering methods available for SAR applications, those are multiple scattering, volume scat-tering, double bounces scattering and surface scattering. Depends on the scattering nature, it is possible to interpret the different types of object bodies. The SAR image used in this paper has taken from the RADARSAT-2 satellite....

Authors: Medikonda Anil Kumar.

11 Jun 30, 2016
3D DEM DELINEATION OF CHAMBAL RIVER BASIN FROM SRTM DATA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNOLOGY

Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing, have proved to be efficient tools in delineation of drainage pattern and different geometric methodology of geomorphologic, watershed management even GIS has been widely used in several flood management, and environmental applications. However, Applications of Geographical Information Sys-tems (GIS) to geomorphological research have been increas-ing with the increasing complex morphometric evolution of large and restricted area .Increasing availability of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) at various resolutions has facili-tated this trend. However, Chambal river basin is prehistoric in nature and vast in geomorphic studies. The fluvial geo-morphology of Chambal River basin is so vast in terminolo-gy. Chambal basin is around 1,43,219 sq.km2 in area. Therefore we are using remote sensing and GIS application and technique to analyzing the whole Chambal geomorphol-ogy in interval of space and time. Remote sensing and GIS is a modern technology to solve the analytical and statistical problems. However, the DEM is used for an accurate analy-sis the morphometric parameters. Its 90 meter spatial resolu-tion data downloaded from http//.www.usgs.org or cgiar –csi.org portal. DEM is digital elevation model which shows gridded array of elevation. The quality of DEM can also influence accuracy of surface analysis parameters. DEM has X,Y values which show 2 dimensional surface and Z values shows clear 3D interpretation of an area. 3D view of Cham-bal basin shows the base height and vertical exaggeration of data with aspect of area....

Authors: Pradeepika .Kaushik, P. Ghosh.

12 Jun 30, 2016
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL EROSION USING RUSLE2 MODEL AND GIS IN UPPER EBONYI RIVER WATERSHED, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

Soil erosion is a growing problem in Nigeria, particularly in South-Eastern Nigeria. This study focused on the estimation of the rate of soil erosion and soil loss potential using Re-vised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE2) and ArcGIS in the Upper Ebonyi River watershed. Soil data, land use inventory, digital elevation model, and climatic data were used as resource data sets to generate RUSLE2 factor values in ArcGIS environment. All factors used in RUSLE2 were calculated for the catchment area using local data. The rain-fall erosivity R-factor was calculated from the annual and monthly rainfall data and the soil erodibility K-factor calcu-lated from the soil map. Slopes and overall LS-values in the catchment were obtained from the DEM. The C-factor val-ues were computed using remote sensing (with NDVI). Sup-port practice P-factors were from terraces that exist on slopes. The results of the preliminary soil erosion assessment indicate that the average annual soil loss within the catch-ment ranges from 0 to 48 tons/ha/yr, the total average soil loss is 24,191.66(ton/yr.) with an average of 14.21(ton/ha/yr.). The values of erosion potential were di-vided into four (4) risk classes. The results showed that low class of soil loss having a range of soil loss between 0 to 1.4 (ton/ha/year), moderate class having rates between 1.4 to 4(ton/ha/year), high class rates between 4 to 12 (ton/ha/year), and Severe rates from 12 to 48(ton/ha/year) covering 68.3%, 21.135, 9.23% and 1.09% of the watershed area respectively....

Authors: Nwakor, E.K.,Nsukka; Ogbu.

13 Jun 30, 2016
GEO-INFORMATICS FOR UNDERSTANDING POPULATION DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATIONAL CAPITAL OF INDIA

Delhi today is one of the largest growing cities in the world; the growth rate of the Delhi, the national capital of India always shows the positive results. It is attracting a large number of immigrants from other states of India. As per census records of India it accounts for 1.34 percent of the total population of the whole India and occupies 18th rank amongst all the states and union territories. As per 1991 census Delhi was a single district and later on in 2001 census it was divided into nine districts In the present study data of all the nine districts has been presented and an attempt bas been made to make population assessment of national capital of India Delhi, using Geo-informatics technology. The primary dataset that were employed in the present study are satellite data of Landsat ETM imagery (1999-2000) coupled with ground truthing using global positioning system. By comparing these two multi-date images, and statistical assessments over satellite image an assessment about the distribution of population of Delhi was drawn (No2). The present study holds significance keeping in view the ever expanding population of Delhi and use of Geo-informatics in redressing those issues. The Study will also try to explore new age of technical path to give the results in the areas where manual methods are being dominated....

Authors: Sohieb Ghazali, Syed Aasif Ahmad Farooqi, Sana Khan,Vakeel Ahmed Shah.

14 Jun 30, 2016
DOUBLE LANE ROAD CONNECTIVITY WITH MANDAL HEADQUARTERS TO DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH - A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS

Adequate infrastructure is essential to pay the way to de-velopment of any region. Road network is one of the key component and it stimulates overall development of the country by providing access to economic and social infra-structure and facilities. It plays an important role in the com-prehensive development of a society and in the economic growth of the region. Expansion of the present road network can be proportional to the needs of the newly formed state of Andhra Pradesh. The main objective of the study is to identi-fy the double lane road network connectivity and to build an optimum route between district headquarters and mandal headquarters of the state Andhra Pradesh in order to maxim-ize economic and social benefits. The existing road network was digitized using satellite data of IRS P6 LISS IV and CartoSat PAN images in conjunction with SOI toposheets. The collateral data of the road network is collected from the departments concerned. Optimal route from each mandal to respective district head quarters has been determined using ArcGIS software The detailed analysis revealed that 211 mandal headquarters, out of 670 doesn’t have double lane connectivity. The total length of single lane roads required to upgrade to double lane is about 2845.5 km. mandal wise proposed road length information would aid in understand-ing the status of spatial distribution of roads and its extent. This will ultimately helps to decision makes for further planning and to take appropriate decisions in time for devel-opment....

Authors: Ch.Tata Babu, G.V.Padma, P.Venkata Ramireddy, G.Prasada Rao.

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