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1 Jul 02, 2016
EVALUATION OF SOIL DEGRADATION IN AL-KHARJ CENTRE, SAUDI ARABIA USING REMOTE SENSING

Land degradation is a great threat to the world, not merely as an environmental issue, but also a social and economic prob-lem. Therefore, identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and implement the remedial measures needed. This study presents the main results of a thorough evaluation of land degradation in Al-Kharj Centre, Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in Saudi Arabia. An integrated approach for evaluating soil degrada-tion was adopted in this study, through the combined analy-sis of satellite imagery and supported by fieldwork and pre-vious work done in the region. The results revealed that the cultivated areas covered an area of about 820 km2 which dropped to 505 km2 in 2001. Remote sensing was used for monitoring changes in the cultivated area and its relationship to land degradation. The decrease in the cultivated area from the year 1993 through 1997 and 2001 was used as an indica-tion of land degradation and linked to normalized difference vegetation index as determined from remote sensing data for the period 1993 through 2001. Principal component and un-supervised classifications were used to identify the ground features which could be related to land degradation. It was concluded that 10 units were more appropriate to show the cultivated area clearly with no overlapping with other units. Verification by field trips (ground truth) indicated that there are three basic units and several sub-units in the area studied. The results indicated that salinization, water quality, sand creep, and wind erosion represent the major types of land degradation in the studied area....

Authors: Abdullah S. Modaihsh, Mohamed O. Mahjoub, Abdelazeem Sh. Sallam, Adel M. Ghoneim.

2 Jul 02, 2016
ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY INDEX (ESI) MAPPING FOR OIL SPILL HAZARD - A CASE STUDY FOR KAKINADA COAST

The recent oil spill incidents such as oil rig blow up on 20th April, 2010 at Gulf of Mexico and ship accident on 7th August, 2010 at Mumbai has drawn attention of coastal managers to adopt proactive approach to manage the oil spills in marine environment. The oil spill in marine water has direct impact on coastal resources and community. Prep-aration of Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map is the first step to assess the potential impact of an oil spill and minimize the damage of coastal resources. In this paper an attempt made to prepare an ESI map for sensitivity to oil spills of Kakinada coast. The Kakinada coast is subjected to high threaten to oil spill because of port, off shore oil explo-ration, dense mangrove forest and many industrial activities. Mapping the coastal resources, shoreline and coastal struc-tures was carried out using Satellite images and GIS tech-nology. The dataset used for the study include high resolu-tion CARTOSAT-1 PAN (2007) image of 2.5 m resolution and LANDSAT ETM (2001) image of 30 m resolution. The Digital Image Processing software (ERDAS) & GIS soft-ware (ARCGIS 10) used for the satellite image processing and feature extractions. The coastal features classified into three major categories as: Biological, Human and Habitat. Mapping carried out upto 2 km into the land from shoreline. Coastal resources identified, mapped and extracted from satellite image by Supervised Classification technique with 83% accuracy. The important resources classified into man-grove, mudflat, coastal structure (Break Water, Jetty and Port), sandy beach, saltpan, tidal flats, etc. The sensitivity of shore was ranked as low to high (1 = low sensitivity; 10 = high sensitivity) based on geomorphology of Kakinada coast using NOAA standards (sensitivity to oil, ease of clean up, etc). The ESI map prepared at 1:25,000 scale and digital database have been generated for the Kakinada coast. The ESI maps are useful to the oil spill responders, coastal man-agers and contingency planners....

Authors: Sriganesh. J, Kankara. R. S., and Venkatachalapathy. R.

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